Thursday, August 31, 2006

Science and Technology, Quantum Daisy

Quantum Daisy, Image credit: Courtesy National Institute of Standards and TechnologyQuantum daisy. Twelve cobalt atoms arranged in a circle on a surface of copper produce a daisy-like pattern from the interference of electron wave. This image was made with a one-of-a-kind instrument
that, acting autonomously, picks up and places individual atoms anywhere on a surface. NIST scientists are studying the quantum properties of different atom arrangements to help improve the design and fabrication of nanoscale devices

Use of NIST Information, These World Wide Web pages are provided as a public service by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). With the exception of material marked as copyrighted, information presented on these pages is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credits is requested. full resolution tif image of non-copyrighted image (15MB).

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office

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STANDARDS



Recently, a column in Editor & Publisher magazine proclaimed that the comic strip For Better or Worse (above) is "the best comic in the 111-year history of the modern newspaper strip." Labeling the creator an "artistic genius," the column argued that For Better or Worse surpasses strips such as Krazy Kat, Little Nemo, Calvin & Hobbes, Peanuts and Terry and the Pirates.



In the LA Times, art dealer Karen de la Carriere asserted that Kinkade, the painter of unmitigated twaddle, "is a modern day Leonardo da Vinci or Monet. There is no one in our generation who can paint like that."



Not to be outdone, the NY Times Magazine pronounced Art Spiegelman the “Michelangelo" of the comic world.

For many years, I thought the only polite response when critics publicly embarrassed themselves was to look the other way, just as you would for someone whose bodily functions got the best of them during a momentary lull at a party.

But when you have a blog like this, you get a lot of traffic from people who insist that everyone is entitled to their own standards, and that taste in art is no different from taste in ice cream. Chocolate, vanilla or strawberry, it's all equally valid. Those people may wish to stop reading now.

There are plenty of reasons for an art critic to be humble. Art means different things to different people. For some it is purely decorative. For others it has religious significance. It can be a form of therapy, a parlour trick, or (in perhaps its highest and best use) a seduction technique. Taste in art changes, so an artist beloved by one generation might fall from grace in the next. Furthermore, wonderful art pops up in unexpected places-- from children, from the mentally ill, from primitive civilizations. In view of all this, who is to say what’s good and bad? If people get genuine pleasure from mediocre art, one has to think twice before telling them they are wrong to do so.


This may explain a recent survey of 230 art critics by Columbia University, which found that passing judgment on art was at the bottom of their list of priorities, while "providing an accurate descriptive account" was at the top. This unwillingness to evaluate quality caused James Elkins, chair of art history at the Art Institute of Chicago, to conclude that art criticism is in a "worldwide crisis" because "contemporary art criticism is entranced by the possibility of avoiding judgment."

In a major essay in the New York Times, Barry Gewen analyzed six art books that survey the state of "fine" art today. Although the books were written from a wide variety of perspectives, they all reached the same grim conclusion: "surveying the trends in modern art leaves one with the sense that we have arrived at the end of something, a state of bewilderment at best, of bankruptcy at worst."

It's a sad ending for a trend that began with such excitement and promise. Nearly 50 years ago, Robert Motherwell wrote:
The emergence of abstract art is a sign that there are still men of feeling in the world .... Nothing as drastic as abstract art could have come into existence save as the consequence of a most profound, relentless, unquenchable need. The need is for felt experience -- intense, immediate direct, subtle, unified, warm, vivid, rhythmic.
But Clement Greenberg, one of the earliest supporters of abstract art, added an important qualification:
The nonrepresentational or abstract, if it is to have aesthetic validity, cannot be arbitrary and accidental, but must stem from obedience to some worthy constraint.
The absence of a worthy constraint-- of standards-- opened the door to artists such as Bob Flanagan, whose art involved nailing his penis to a wooden plank, or Keith Broadwee whose art involved squirting paint from his anus.

One reason I like illustration and comic art is that it is not as susceptible to narcissism and decadence. As Howard Munce once remarked, "the difference between art and illustration is that there are no amateur illustrators." An honest commercial marketplace may not be the ideal source for purpose and value in art, but it will certainly do until a better one comes along.

In the end, I agree with William Blake:
When I tell any truth, it is not for the sake of convincing those who do not know it, but for the sake of defending those who do.
Many of the artists discussed on this blog are gifted artists who held themselves to exacting standards. They paid a high price to develop their art in ways other than nailing their penises to a plank. It is to honor their accomplishment that I stand firm on this spot in cyberspace and insist, "standards are not an illusion."




.

Two More from '54


Another great composition, beautifully realized, by Joe Bowler. But wait - where's the gun? Oh yeah - there it is, pointed down and away at the edge of the frame! In spite of my (minor, facetious) criticism, I am constantly wowed by Bowler's fabulous illustrative skills. It's not easy making a green hue work on skintone, but it adds an effective air of tension and dread to this second piece.

* Don't forget, you can see all of this week's scans at full size in my Joe Bowler Flickr set.

Tourists




"Look dear, its Buckinghamshire Palace!"

Wednesday, August 30, 2006

Science and Technology, Wind Turbine

DOE Wind Turbine, Photo:  U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)DOE wind turbine dedicated January 28, 1978 in Clayton, New Mexico, is the first Federally sponsored wind generator to provide electric power for a U.S. community.
The wind turbine supplies 200 kilowatts of power when operating at or above its rated wind speed of 19 miles per hour. This is enough power to meet the electrical needs of about 60 homes

Copyright, Restrictions, and Permissions Notice, Government information at DOE Web sites is in the public domain. Public domain information may be freely distributed and copied, but it is requested that in any subsequent use the Department of Energy be given appropriate acknowledgement.

Images on our web site (DOE) which are in the public domain may be used without permission. If you use images from our web site, we ask that you credit us as the source.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office

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The Challenger's Haul

voyage map
primate handsThis is an inverted, spliced and 'scrubbed' detail from a plate entitled
'Phascolarctos cinereus and Didelphys Virginiana', 1882 by Cunningham.

drymonema victoria
radiolaria
radiolaria 1
collozoumThe above 4 images come from the renowned Ernst Haeckel
and I only just now realise that all the plates he prepared for
the Challenger publication are in fact available from Kurt Stüber's
website [I, II, III, IV] (about my favourite place on the web)
[If you haven't encountered the amazing 'martian' plankton
images from Haeckel before, absolutely definitely see:
'Radiolarien' and 'Kunstformen der Natur']

human crania
ophiuroidea
sergestes
polylophus philippinensis
foraminifera globigerina
myzostomida
eudyptes chrysocome
eudyptes
cephalopodiscus
cephalopoda
cephalopoda hoyle

HMS Challenger was a steam assisted wooden corvette that sailed nearly 70,000 miles around the world between 1872 and 1876, engaged in marine exploration and specimen collection. The former naval ship had been refitted to house purpose-built laboratories, a dredging platform and extra cabins for the 250 crew and scientists.

The voyage was a benchmark for oceanographic science, with extensive physical, chemical, biological and meteorological measurements and sampling undertaken methodically for the first time in all the oceans of the world, save the Arctic. Among other thing they were able to establish that living organisms could survive at great depths in pitch black conditions (going against the beliefs at the time) and that some sediment on the ocean floor originated from comets.

In addition to the vast numbers of newly discovered marine creatures collected, the ship spent considerable time in ports, allowing for further exhaustive fauna sampling and studying of native cultures and their physiology (see skulls above). Much of the 2 volume summary from the eventual 50 volumes of Challenger scientific papers published by 1895 described the eclectic tribes and their customs..
"King Thackery of the Fiji Islands of the Pacific was converted to Christianity, but had earlier cut out a victim's tongue, and then proceeded to eat it in his victim's presence, before eating the rest of him. Most of the other people encountered were less disturbing."

What a Difference a Year Makes

Now this is more like it!
My collection of Collier's magazines is far from complete, but from what I do have, I get the impression that Joe Bowler began painting crime story illustrations for Collier's in 1954 and continued to produce them through 1955. What a difference a year makes!

Compare yesterday's piece from 1954, The Desperate Hours to Monday's and today's pieces from 1955's Invasion of Privacy. While all the pieces are, of course, expertly designed and executed, the Invasion characters are clearly trapped in a genuinely threatening situation - punctuated here by a window-cracking bullet hole.

Somewhere between '54 and '55 Bowler seems to have found his "crime legs".

Tuesday, August 29, 2006

Maritime Curios

The Greenwich Pensioner caricature'The Greenwich Pensioner'
by N. Carpenter; Charles Dibdin, late 18th cent.
"This robust, popular image illustrates the text of Charles Dibdin's well known song, 'The Greenwich Pensioner' which is printed below it (not shown on photo). The Pensioner, with a left wooden peg-leg, a stout stick under his left arm and a clay pipe in his left hand stands on the north side of the Thames, gesturing towards Greenwich Hospital, the Queen's House and the Royal Observatory in the background with his right hand.

The stern of a small Royal Naval warship flying the red ensign is on the left, with a sprit-rigged river craft, and the Union flag flies above the Governor's House in the King Charles Court on the right. The Pensioner's position is falsely elevated, producing an aerial perspective of the Grand Square behind, with Rysbrack's statue of George II in the centre. The background design may derive from Rigaud's much earlier print of the Hospital, or similar ones which adopt this perspective."
More on the Greenwich Pensioner/Royal Hospital for Seamen, Greenwich: I, II.

Lady Hamilton as the goddess of health'Emma Hart afterwards Lady Hamilton as the goddess
of health while being exhibited in that character by
Dr Graham in Pall Mall' by Richard Cosway c. 1785.
"A pen and wash sketch showing Emma Hart enacting a ‘tableaux vivant’. She wears loosely flowing classical robes and Greek-style sandals and holds a ritualistic goblet. She is posing as Vestina, the goddess of health, an attitude she adopted while employed with the well-known quack doctor, Dr James Graham.

He opened a Temple of Health and Hymen, initially in the Adelphi and later at Schomberg House, Pall Mall. Magnificently fitted out, it attracted crowds who visited to hear Graham’s lectures on the advantages of electricity and magnetism. He also advocated healthy living and personal beauty, leading to happiness in body and mind, while the Temple was further famed for its ‘celestial bed’ in which infertile couples could pay a large sum to spend the night as an aid to conception – or so ran the promotion.

Graham also endorsed the frequent use of mud-baths and was reputedly seen immersed in mud while wearing an elaborately dressed wig, accompanied by Emma, with her hair elaborately dressed with powder, flowers, feathers, and ropes of pearls.

Emma’s ‘attitudes’, in which she portrayed contrasting emotions through gesture, expression and a variety of props were more fully developed after she became Sir William Hamilton’s mistress at Naples in 1786, and later his second wife. Hamilton encouraged this, tutoring her in antique gesture based on his knowledge of classical sculpture and vase decoration, supervising her performances, and having artists record them – Frederick Rehberg’s drawings being published at his expense.

The overall result was that she was celebrated throughout Europe for this unique form of personal performance. This drawing is an early record of her in such a role and one that also captures her erotic youthful beauty."

"..In her performances of these ['attitudes'], which she first began about 1786, Emma adopted poses taken from classical sculpture or Renaissance painting: at one point Sir William Hamilton even constructed a special box with a black border for her to pose in, to imitate more closely the appearance of a framed painting.

Numerous contemporary descriptions praise both her skill at adopting poses that would have been easily recognizable to connoisseurs steeped in a classical education and her own naturally ‘classical’ beauty. Rehberg’s publication was highly popular, running to several editions: so much so that it was lampooned in 1807 by (probably) James Gillray, who substituted for the graceful, classically proportioned body of Rehberg’s prints a ‘considerably enlarged’ figure, truer to the by then excessively fat Lady Hamilton, in what was termed a ‘new edition ... humbly dedicated to all admirers of the grand and sublime’. "(eg.)

Officer viewing through periscope'Submarine Series. Officer viewing
through periscope' by Eric Ravilious 1940.
"In 1940 Ravilious became one of the first official war artists. During the summer he was at HMS 'Dolphin' at Gosport drawing the interiors of submarines, sometimes at sea. He had already conceived the idea of a set of submarine lithographs intended as a children's painting book, and in November he set to work."
[He died in 1942. See: Imperial War Museum exhibition; all the illustrations from 'High Street'; gallery of illustrations and crockery; homesite.]

bouffant hairstyles satire 1777'The Ton at Greenwich. A la Festoon dans
le Park a Greenwich' by Darly 1777.
"A satire on the size of French-inspired bouffant hairstyles and their protection, with the Observatory on the hill on the right. The print is also an early image of an umbrella - carried by the servant. This was invented (or at least popularized) by Jonas Hanway, founder of the Marine Society, which educated and fitted out orphan boys for a career at sea."

starboard view revolutionary french bow'Le San Culote' [Sans-Culotte], figurehead Revolutionary
French ship circa 1795 {from the French School}
"It was usual for ships to bear figureheads with political or ideological meanings. This is one of two drawings of the French Revolutionary ship ‘Sans-Culotte’, the other of which shows the stern. Here the starboard profile view of the prow focuses on the figurehead, the icon of the Revolutionary ideal, the Jacobin ‘sans-culotte’.

He is, however, a fusion of various Revolutionary iconographies. The Republic took as its political model the ‘polis’ of the classical Greek republic, and openly adopted severely rational, neo-classical cultural ideals in emulation of the classical past. The mythological hero Hercules was also adopted, along with the female icon Marianne, as the incarnation of French Revolutionary principles.

Here, therefore, the ‘sans-culotte’s’ dress is transformed into a classicized toga, and, while clutching the ‘fasces’ (the bound rods and axe that represented Roman justice) with his left hand, he holds in his right a Herculean club. On the other hand, his contemporary identity is also represented, somewhat incongruously, by his wearing typical French 18th-century footwear and the obligatory ‘bonnet rouge’."

Battle of Trafalgar Panorama sketch'Battle of Trafalgar. Panorama, Leicester Square'.
Lithography by J Adlard after Henry Aston Barker c.1806.
"Cleverly painted, masked and lit by daylight from above, these circular panoramas gave the illusion to those standing on the central viewing platform that they were really in the landscape, seascape or battle scene that were the usual subjects. The panorama was invented about 1787 by Robert Barker of Edinburgh. From 1794 to 1863, he and his successors exhibited many such spectacles in ‘The Panorama’, his purpose-built premises in Cranbourne Street, Leicester Square, where the largest views – including this one of Trafalgar, shown in 1806 – were about 30 feet high by 90 feet across (9 x 27m), on 10,000 square feet (930 sq. m) of canvas.

Many other showmen copied Barker and circular panoramas became common across Europe and America. A few survive (as well as modern ones) but the last large circular panorama of Trafalgar was painted by Philip Fleischer in 1890. It was seen in Edinburgh and Manchester before being shown at the 1891 Royal Naval Exhibition at Chelsea, and then toured on the Continent.

When they met at Palermo in 1799, Nelson thanked Barker for prolonging the fame of the Battle of the Nile in a Leicester Square panorama. This is the printed viewer’s ‘key’ to the version of Trafalgar painted in the year of Barker’s death by his son Henry. It was displayed for over a year from about 14 May 1806 to 25 May 1807."
Unfortunately, I couldn't track down any images of Fleischer's painting - 'image unavailable' (near the end of the page). At least it put some ideas and sites into my orbit for a future post.

satire egyptian clothing accoutrements'Dresses a la Nile respectfully dedicated to the
Fashion Mongers of the day' by W. Holland 1798.

"A gentle lampoon against British fashionable society, making facetious suggestions for ways to incorporate the topical news of Nelson’s victory over the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile on 1 August into the latest fashions.

It was commonplace for people to display patriotic sentiment or political opinions (for example, for the campaign for the abolition of the slave trade) through dress or other accoutrements, but this satire takes this trend to ridiculous extremes, with its overabundant and absurd Egyptian references. It also maintains a staple iconography of satirical prints, treating the excesses of fashion.

On the left, the woman is virtually mummified in her white dress decorated with crocodiles. Opposite her, the man’s costume is even more extravagant, consisting of crocodile skin coat, waistcoat and reptilian boots. His hat also sports a bright yellow crocodile. They stare at each other in mutual astonishment at the other’s appearance. To complete the topical references, and by way of explanation of the outfits, both wear hats with the motto ‘Nelson and Victory’."

sailor carrying hammock'Bray Album: A Sailor bringing up his hammock,
Pallas, Jany 75' by Gabriel Bray 1775.
"In 1991 the Museum acquired a group of drawings by Gabriel Bray (1750-1823), the second lieutenant on HMS 'Pallas' during a voyage to the coast of West Africa and the West Indies, 1774-75, under Captain the Hon. William Cornwallis. The drawings are remarkable because they show aspects of everyday life on board a Royal Navy ship during the 1770s, the decade of Captain Cook's three voyages.

The drawings are rare if not unique in showing sailors and marines about their daily duties - in this a example a sailor carrying his hammock. This drawing, or one like it, is also shown being inspected in Bray's sketchbook by James Cornwallis - a relative of the captain's who was also on the voyage - in a portrait drawing of him from the same group."
sketch alleged invasion craft 18th century
'A Correct Plan and Elevation of the Famous French Raft
constructed on purpose for the Invasion of England and
intended to carry 30000 men, Ammunition stores &c &c.
Engraved from a Drawing made by an Officer at Brest and
now in Possession of the Publisher' {British School, 18th cent.}
"Early in 1798 there were reports of a planned French invasion of the southern English coast, with the build-up of troops in the northern French ports. On the French side there was a belief that their invading army would be broadly welcomed by the majority of ordinary British people.

By contrast, across the Channel fears of an invasion induced the promulgation of a fable about an enormous raft that the French were supposedly constructing in order to transport huge numbers of French soldiers to England. Several prints, of which this is an example, were produced claiming to be based on eyewitness accounts or other authentic information. They vary in the raft’s reported carrying capacity, most claiming that 60,000 troops could be transported.

This print, which shows the raft as the impossible product of severe rational geometry, combined with the fantasies of Baron Münchhausen and Noah’s Ark, claims just 30,000 capacity. It is difficult to know how seriously prints such as this were intended to be taken. While there was genuinely founded fear of invasion, there was also widespread ridicule of the idea of a raft, including a theatrical afterpiece on the subject. J. C. Cross’s ‘The Raft, or both Sides of the Water’ had its first performance at Covent Garden on 31 March 1798, with the predictable denouement of the raft being blown up."
sketch alleged invasion raft 18th century'A new Machine (or Raft) to cover (or protect)
the Landing of the French on their intended
Invasion of England etc' by William Winton 1798.
"This is another variation on the supposed raft being built by the French for the invasion of Britain in early 1798. Unlike other prints produced during this wave of paranoia in London, which represent the vessel as an excessively fantastic contraption more appropriate to the tales of Baron Münchhausen, this print pares it down to a severe geometric symmetry to assert its claim to being based in fact. Indeed, a greater air of authority is lent by the claim that the engraving is made after an original drawing by a French prisoner of war, and by the wealth of statistical detail in the caption. The machine is described as:

‘Flat; 2,100 Feet long, and 1,500 Feet broad; has 500 Cannon round it, 36 and 48 Pounders; at each end is two Wind Mills, which turns Wheels in the Water at every point of the Wind to Navigate; in the middle is a Fort enclosing Mortars, Perriers, &c. It carries 60,000 Men, Cavalry, Infantry, and Artillery.’

Nonetheless, this does not disguise the unseaworthiness of the ‘new machine’, and neither is there any firm evidence that such a vessel was being constructed on the north French coast at this time."
sketch alleged invasion machine 18th century'An Accurate Representation of the Floating Machine Invented
by the French for Invading England and acts on the principals
of both Wind and Water Mills etc' by Freville; Deighton c.1805.
"Another print responding to the invasion scare of early 1798 and the rumours of an enormous raft that the French were supposedly constructing on the Channel coast in order to land vast numbers of troops. Here it is claimed that the vessel could carry 60,000 troops, though it is difficult to see how it could be believed that such a bizarre, Heath Robinson contraption as this could ever put to sea. Combining wind and watermills, with an enormous ‘Gothic’, Bastille-like tower and castle in the centre, it seems to recall contemporary fantasies about the appearance of the Ark."

The UK National Maritime Museum has about 1000 images available from their 'Prints, Drawings and Watercolours' collection.

Science and Technology, "Little Boy" atomic bomb

Hiroshima 1940's -- ATOMIC BURST. At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column. August 5, 1945. Two planes of the 509th Composite Group, part of the 313th Wing of the 20th Air Force, participated in this mission; one to carry the bomb, and the other to act as escort. (U.S. Air Force photo.Hiroshima 1940's -- ATOMIC BURST. At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column. August 5, 1945.
Two planes of the 509th Composite Group, part of the 313th Wing of the 20th Air Force, participated in this mission; one to carry the bomb, and the other to act as escort. (U.S. Air Force photo. High Resolution Image
Atomic bomb returns to Air Force Museum, WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Ohio -- A 'Little Boy' atomic bomb returned to the Air Force Museum here July 15 after a yearlong restoration project. It is the same type as the one the dropped Aug. 6, 1945, over Hiroshima, Japan. (U.S. Air Force photo by Jeff Fisher.Atomic bomb returns to Air Force Museum, WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Ohio -- A 'Little Boy' atomic bomb returned to the Air Force Museum
here July 15 after a yearlong restoration project. It is the same type as the one dropped Aug. 6, 1945, over Hiroshima, Japan. (U.S. Air Force photo by Jeff Fisher. High Resolution Image

Information presented on Air Force Link is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credits is requested.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office.

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Studio Wall


I recently redecorated one of my studio walls so I could put up some of my newest pieces. I primed it with magnetic paint and then finished it off with a nice warm chocolate colored latex. The beautiful 12 drawer mahogany credenza was designed by my talented husband Manolo :o)

True Crime Illustration?


Its so odd seeing a Joe Bowler character holding a gun. I can't help but think that Bowler also found it odd to be painting a character holding a gun.

When I first found this illustration I thought it was a more-typical-for-Bowler romance scenario, not unlike the many beautifully executed compositions he was doing for Good Housekeeping or Ladie's Home Journal... then I noticed the gun. Everything about this piece displays Bowler's chops at designing and painting a great illustration - just not a crime illustration. I get no sense of menace, of forboding from the characters or the composition.

The villian is small and set in a corner, his gun pointed away from the victim and placed even further into the corner as if to hide an embarassment. His expression is one of bemusement, not threat. The girl, large and imposing by comparison, filling the majority of the image area, seems more frustrated than frightened. Hardly the picture of a member of "a family held captive by three warped, violent men". I wonder if Bowler was perhaps not entirely comfortable with the crime genre and can imagine how differently someone like Austin Briggs would have handled this particular assignment.

Still the powerful and dynamic, modern composition, the flawless execution, are wonderful to behold. Joe Bowler was a true master illustrator - just perhaps not a true crime illustrator.

Monday, August 28, 2006

Science and Technology, Wired Cells

Community of Cells or Single Cell, U.S. Department of Energy Genomics:GTL Programcaption: Although microbes are single-cell organisms, they typically live in communities composed of more than one kind of microbe -- often many different kinds. Considering that life is found in virtually every environmental niche from arctic tundra to parched deserts to boiling sea vents on the deepest ocean floor,
the global genetic "catalog" encoding all of life's amazingly diverse capabilities must be astonishing, yet very few details are known.

For more on the science behind the Human Genome Project, see our Website.

These images originally appeared in the 2001 Genomes to Life Program Roadmap

image credit: U.S. Department of Energy Genomics:GTL Program, doegenomestolife.org

Available Formats, high resolution (jpg, 254 KB), low resolution (jpg, 28 KB), single cell only (low resolution) (gif, 13 KB)

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Image Use and Credits Almost all of the images on U.S. Department of Energy pages are original graphics created by the U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program's Human Genome Management Information System (HGMIS). You will recognize these HGMIS images by their credit line (U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program or U.S. Department of Energy Genomics:GTL Program.) Permission to use these graphics is not needed, but please credit the U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program or U.S. Department of Energy Genomics:GTL Program, the website ornl.gov/hgmis .

Leave a comment, make a request, Let this small sampling be a guide to better quality, more plentiful, public domain, royalty free, copyright free, high resolution, images, stock photos, jpeg, jpg, free for commercial use, clip art, clipart, clip-art. more at and or and or and or ,

The Wainwright Lithograph Collection of Philadelphia

Roper's Gymnasium'Roper's Gymnasium.
274 Market Street, Philadelphia. [E. W. Clay].
(Philadelphia: From Childs & Inman's Press, ca. 1831.)'

Panorama of Philadelphia from the State House Steeple 1838'Panorama of Philadelphia from the State House Steeple. East.
Drawn from nature and on stone by J. C. Wild.
(Philadelphia: Lith. of Wild & Chevalier No. 72 Dock St., c1838.)'

Philadelphia, from the State House steeple 1849'Philadelphia, from the State House steeple, North, East and South.
Sketched from nature by Joseph Thoma ; Drawn on stone by Leo Elliot ;
N. Friend's Lithc. Offce. 141 Walnut Street ; Printed at T. Sinc. c.1849.'


Railroad Depot at Philadelphia 1832'Railroad Depot at Philadelphia. / [W. L. Breton].
(Philadelphia: [Kennedy & Lucas], 1832).'

Philadelphia horse & buggy bazaar 1848'Philadelphia horse & buggy bazaar,
S. E. Corner of Ninth & George,
bet. Walnut & Chesnut Sts. Philadelphia.
On stone by W. H. Rease No. 17 Sth 5th St. Phila.
(Philadelphia: Printed by F. Kuhl Phil., [April 1848]).'

Two of the killers 1855'Two of the killers.
(Philadelphia: Published by J. Childs, 46 1/2 Walnut St., ca. 1855.).'

Rockhill & Wilson, tailors & clothiers of men & boys wear 1857'Rockhill & Wilson, tailors & clothiers of men & boys wear,
Nos. 205 & 207 Chestnut St & 28 South 6th Street.
Lith. by W. H. Rease, N.E. cor. 4th & Chestnut Sts.
(Philadelphia: Printed by Wagner & McGuigan, 1857).'

Philadelphia Gas Works 1852'Philadelphia Gas Works. From the South West.
John C. Cresson, engineer.
(Philadelphia: Printed by J. T. Bowen, ca. 1852.).'

Joseph Feinour & Son stove store 1845'Joseph Feinour & Son stove store and Joseph Feinhour's tin,
copper brass & iron ware house 213-215 South Front
Street, Philadelphia by W. H. Rease, 17, So. 5th St.
(Printed by Wagner & McGuigan Lithrs. 100 Chesnut St., ca. 1845.).'

Schuyler furnishing undertaker carriages 1848'P. R. Schuyler, furnishing undertaker,
N.E. cor. Beaver & 4th Sts., Philadelphia. N. B. lots for sale
in Monument Cemetery on reasonable terms. Also single interments.
Drawn on stone by W. H. Rease, No. 17, So. 5th. St.
(Philadelphia: Printed by F. Kuhl, ca. 1848.).'

Jenkins & Co. grocery and tea store 1848'J. C. Jenkins & Co. grocery and tea store,
S.W. corner of Chestnut and 12th Streets, Philadelphia
Desnd. & drawn by Ellwood D. Long.
(W. Stott's Lith Press, No. 97, Chesnut above 3rd Sts., ca. 1848.).'

Birdseye view of horizontorium building 1832'Horizontorium.
From the original drawing by Wm. Mason in the possession of
Charles N. Bancker Esqr.; Drawn on stone by J.J. Barker;
[Printed by Childs & Inman]
(Published by R. H. Hobson 147 Chestnut Street, c1832.).'

Pennsylvania Hall burning 1838'Destruction by fire of Pennsylvania Hall, the new building
of the Abolition Society, on the night of 17th May.
[J. C. Wild] (Philadelphia: [J. T. Bowen], 1838).'


'Philadelphia in the Romantic Age of Lithography: An illustrated history of early lithography in Philadelphia with a descriptive list of Philadelphia scenes made by Philadelphia lithographers before 1866' by Nicholas B. Wainwright was a scholarly publication from 1958 and nearly 300 of the illustrations are available at Philadelphia's The Library Company.

I would not have predicted that I would actually go through each of the images, nor find the overall collection particularly fascinating. But:
"In them one sees the appearance of the city in remarkable detail. Since many of the lithographs were made for advertising purposes, there is naturally a fine range of shops, hotels, and industrial establishments. There are also a variety of public buildings and churches, and genre scenes of interest." [Walter Muir Whitehall book review pdf file p.182]
The collection also serves as an exhibition of all manner and style (and quality) of lithographic illustration from the first half of the 19th century; so, despite my not knowing Philadelphia from a bag of wheat, I found this collection to be an absorbing timesink. In some cases further notes about each image can be (convolutedly) found through the wolfPAC database (linked from the main page above).