Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Vlad Ţepeş Vlad the Impaler Dracula

Vlad Ţepeş Vlad the Impaler  DraculaSummary: Old painting of Vlad Ţepeş (English: Vlad the Impaler or Dracula, November or December, 1431 – December 1476.) Oil painting at Ambras Castle, Tirol, Austria.

This image is a faithful reproduction of a two-dimensional work of art and thus not copyrightable in itself in the U.S. as per Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp.; the same is also true in many other countries. The original two-dimensional work shown in this image is free content because: This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 are now in the public domain and also in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) and that most commonly run for a period of 50 to 70 years from that date.

Vlad III the Impaler From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vlad III the Impaler (Vlad Ţepeş IPA: ['tsepeʃ] in common Romanian reference; also known as Vlad Dracula or Vlad Drăculea and Kazıklı Voyvoda in Turkish; November or December, 1431 – December 1476) was Prince (voivode) of Wallachia, a former polity that is now part of Romania. His three reigns were in 1448, 1456–62, and 1476. In the English-speaking world, Vlad is best known for the exceedingly cruel punishments he imposed during his reign and for serving as the primary inspiration for the vampire main character in Bram Stoker's popular Dracula novel.

As king, he maintained an independent policy in relation to the Ottoman Empire, and in Romania he is viewed by many as a prince with a deep sense of justice and a defender of Wallachia against Ottoman expansionism.

His Romanian surname Drǎculea, is derived from his father's title Dracul, meaning affiliation to and/or descent from "Dracul" (see Vlad II Dracul); the latter was a member of the Order of the Dragon created by Emperor Sigismund. Vlad's family had two factions, the Drăculeşti and the Dăneşti. The word "dracul" means "the Devil" in modern Romanian but in Vlad's day also meant "dragon" or "demon", and derives from the Latin word Draco, also meaning "dragon".

His post-mortem moniker of Ţepeş (Impaler) originated in his preferred method for executing his opponents, impalement — as popularized by medieval Transylvanian pamphlets. In Turkish, he was known as "Kazıklı Bey" IPA: [kɑzɨkˈɫɨ] which means "Impaler Prince". Vlad was referred to as Dracula in a number of documents of his times, mainly the Transylvanian Saxon pamphlets and The Annals of Jan Długosz.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Vlad III the Impaler

President Bush Urges Congress to Pass Appropriations Bills VIDEO PODCAST and Orson Welles War ot the Worlds H.G. Wells and New force-fluorescence device measures motion previously undetectable


I finished the watercolor display I made for my son Daniel's b-day.
The top picture is lit from the back...
I put it against a sunny window
and I love how the butterflies appear to be glowing.
This other picture was lit from the front.
Now all it needs is a nice shadow box frame.

Gustav Rehberger: Shadows and Dread

What could be more perfect to celebrate Hallowe'en than this lurid tale of torture, murder and the Black Death as goulishly rendered by Gustav Rehberger?

Coronet's editors chose well when they picked Rehberger to illustrate "The Shakespeare Murder Mystery" for the July 1955 issue of the digest magazine.

Another artist might have focused more on detailed accuracy of costume and architecture for this period piece, turning the images into snapshots from a Hollywood stage set. Rehberger understood better than most that conveying the mood and emotion of the dastardly goings on was more important than getting the right kind of button on a shirt.

His stylized, gothic images, filled with shadows and dread, transport us to an otherworldly place, complete with a swirling, churning Lovecraftian vortex hole that looks like it leads to some Cthulhu-like dimension.

Rehberger believed that the concept was "the all important core of a picture."

"No amount of good painting will redeem a poor conception."

* You can enjoy all of today's creepy images at full size in my Gustav Rehberger Flickr set. And have a Happy Hallowe'en!

Tuesday, October 30, 2007


This beautiful drawing was done in 1915 by Rudolph Schindler, an architect in Taos, New Mexico. It was part of a proposal for an adobe home for a local doctor, Paul Martin.

This is a museum quality drawing, but it was far too useful to hang in a museum.


Orson Welles War ot the Worlds H.G. Wells

Orson Welles War ot the Worlds H.G. WellsBut who shall dwell in these worlds if they be inhabited? ... Are we or they Lords of the World? ... And how are all things made for man? ... Kepler (quoted in The Anatomy of Melancholy) --- The War of the Worlds By H. G. Wells

Digital ID: van 5a52776 Source: intermediary roll film Retrieve uncompressed archival TIFF version (137 kilobytes) Digital ID: cph 3c19765. Source: b&w film copy neg. Medium resolution JPEG version (33 kilobytes) Retrieve higher resolution JPEG version (98 kilobytes)
Item Title [Portrait of Orson Welles]. Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964, photographer.
Created,Published, 1937 Mar. 1.

Notes: Title derived from information on verso of photographic print. Van Vechten number: XVII K 27. Gift; Carl Van Vechten Estate; 1966. Forms part of: Portrait photographs of celebrities, a LOT which in turn forms part of the Carl Van Vechten photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Medium: 1 photographic print : gelatin silver. Call Number LOT 12735, no. 1177. REPRODUCTION NUMBER LC-USZ62-119765 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)

Special Terms of Use: For publication information see "Carl Van Vechten Photographs (Lots 12735 and 12736)" Part of Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964. Portrait photographs of celebrities. Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Digital ID: (intermediary roll film) van 5a52776 (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3c19765

Copyright and Restrictions: Per the instrument of gift, "for a period of 20 years from the date of this Instrument [1966], none of the photographs contained in said collection may be sold, reproduced, published or given away in any form whatsoever except with my [Saul Mauriber, Photographic Executor for Van Vechten] express permission in writing." This restriction expired in 1986. In 1998 the Library's Publishing Office was contacted by Bruce Kellner, Successor Trustee for the Van Vechten estate, who disputes Mr. Mauriber's authority in executing the Instrument of Gift.

Upon review of the relevant materials, the Library continues to believe that the photographs are in the public domain. However, patrons are advised that Mr. Kellner has expressed his concern that use of Van Vechten's photographs "preserve the integrity" of his work, i.e, that photographs not be colorized or cropped, and that proper credit is given to the photographer

Orson Welles From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an iconic Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television.

Critical appreciation for Welles has increased since his death. He is now widely acknowledged as one of the most important dramatic artists of the 20th century, in 2002 being voted in a BFI Top Ten Directors poll by the British Film Institute as the greatest film director of all time.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Orson Welles
Orson Welles War ot the Worlds H.G. WellsOctober 30, 1938, Radio program Mercury Theater on the Air presents Orson Welles' production of H.G. Wells' "War of the Worlds," a fictional drama about a Martian invasion in Grovers Mill, New Jersey. The program, which aired on Halloween, sparked a panic among listeners who believed the play was an actual news broadcast. High Resolution Image (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)
Of the six million listeners who heard the show, more than 1.7 million reportedly believed the story was true. "War of the Worlds" panics millions

This is a statue of a Tripod inspired by the book The War of the Worlds and erected as a tribute to the book's author H. G. Wells in the town centre of Woking, England. Gaius Cornelius 17:51, 18 September 2005 (UTC)

I, the copyright holder of this work, (Gaius Cornelius) hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible: I grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

The War of the Worlds From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The War of the Worlds (1898), by H.G. Wells, is an early science fiction novella which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. It is one of the earliest and best-known depictions of an alien invasion of Earth, and has influenced many others, as well as spawning several films and a television series based on the story.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, The War of the Worlds
Orson Welles War ot the Worlds H.G. WellsH. G. Wells. Immediate image source: Image published in Newcomb, A; Blackford, K.M.H.: Analyzing Character, 1922. Earlier editions from 1916 and 1920 also exist.

This media file is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to January 1, 1923. This image might not be in the public domain outside of the United States (this especially applies in Canada, China (not Macao or Taiwan), Germany or Switzerland). High Resolution Image (443 × 618 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)
Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (THIS IMAGE) are now in the public domain.

H. G. Wells From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau.

He was a prolific writer of both fiction and non-fiction, and produced works in many different genres, including contemporary novels, history, and social commentary. He was also an outspoken socialist. His later works become increasingly political and didactic, and only his early science fiction novels are widely read today. Both Wells and Jules Verne are sometimes referred to as "The Father of Science Fiction"

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, H. G. Wells

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Gustav Rehberger: Child Prodigy

I first became aware of Gustav Rehberger when I encountered his innumerable illustrations from early 50's issues of Coronet magazine. When Rehberger did those pieces he was in his early 40's and had established himself as both a commercial illustrator and as a fine artist with several solo and group shows - and several prestigious awards - under his belt. But America had become acquainted with a much younger Gustav Rehberger...

In 1924 an article in the Chicago Tribune told of a 14 year old boy, recently emmigrated from Austria, who had won a scholarship to the Art Institute. It would not be his last. At sixteen, he was awarded a scholarship to Art Instruction Schools.

Time and again since childhood, adults had been both impressed and incredulous at the young Rehberger's abilities. He was, on several occassions, asked to redraw entries for competitions in front of the judges to verify that he had infact drawn the piece - and had not been assisted by an adult.

In spite of his early successes, Rehberger struggled to establish a career for himself. During the depression he was turned down for two college scholarships and instead took any kind of art-related job he could find: lettering, layout, design - even sculpture. He never turned down an assignment, designing a label one day and painting a mural the next. Thus Rehberger was never without work... but because his experience was so broad, it became difficult for art directors to categorize him.

"My career was not easy," said Rehberger in one interview, "It seemed I was always going upstream and agaist the grain."

"My timing was, almost always, at odds with the movement of the era."

After WWII, in which Rehberger served as an artist in the Air Force training division, he moved to New York. "Again I lost out on many important assignments," said the artist. "Agencies felt my work was too powerful and that I put too much of my personality into it."

"Ironically, however, I would again be chosen for big assignments because of that power and my emotional involvement in my work. For the next twenty-five years I enjoyed a lucrative and successful renaissance... mostly for magazines, motion picture promotions and religious paintings."

* You'll find all of today's images in my Gustav Rehberger Flickr set.

Monday, October 29, 2007

Hudson Hornet

Hudson Hornet photo by ChiemseeMan
Hudson Hornet photo by ChiemseeMan
On this day, the last step-down Hudson was produced. Although the Hudson name would live on for another two years, the cars no longer possessed the innovative elegance and handling of models like the Hornet of the early 1950s. October 29, 1954 The last true Hudson

I, the copyright holder of these works (ChiemseeMan), hereby release them into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible: I grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.
Hudson Hornet From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Hudson Hornet was an automobile produced by the Hudson Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan between 1951 and 1954. The Hornet was also built by American Motors Corporation in Kenosha, Wisconsin and marketed under the Hudson brand between 1955 and 1957.

The Hornet was introduced for the 1951 model year and was based upon Hudson's "Stepdown" design, which was introduced for the 1948 model year with the Commodore. These cars were available in two and four-door sedan, convertible coupe and hardtop coupe. The Stepdown was a design which merged body and frame into one structure. The Stepdown's floor pan was recessed in between the car's frame rails instead of the entire chassis being perched on top of the frame. Thus, a person stepped down into a Hudson.

The Hornet was powered by Hudson's H-145 high compression 308ci in-line L-head (flathead) six engine with a two-barrel carburetor producing 145 hp (108 kW) at 3800 rpm. In 1952, the "Twin-H" version of the engine was introduced with dual one-barrel carburetors which produced 170 hp (127 kW). The engine could be tuned to produce 210 hp (157 kW) if equipped with the factory 7-X modifications, introduced later. During 1952 and 1953, the Hornet received minor cosmetic enhancements, and still closely resembled the Commodore of 1948.

For the 1954 model year, the Hornet received a major redesign, which was quite the undertaking because the Stepdown's design, which had the frame wrapped around the entire passenger compartment, dictated the car's shape, and thus a major retooling was required. The 1954 Hornet also received an updated interior. Although the redesign put the Hornet on par with its contemporaries in terms of looks and style, the update came too late to boost sales.

Hornet model year production saw 43,656 units in 1951, 35,921 units in 1952 and 27,208 units in 1953. In its final year before the Hudson merger with Nash-Kelvinator, 24,833 Hornets were produced.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Hudson Hornet

In human grid, we're the cogs and The Crab Nebula and CU researchers shed light on light-emitting nanodevice

New prints!

I made new versions of the Ask-Believe-Receive series
with white background to send to the printer...
They will be available
as a Limited Edition Set on my shop on Wednesday!
Click on images to see them BIGGER.

Gustav Rehberger (1910-1995)

Around this time last year I showed you an illustration by Gustav Rehberger. Not long after that post I was thrilled to receive a note from Pamela Demme, Gustav Rehberger's widow:

"I just discovered some of my husband’s old illustrations on your site. How exciting! I just had to write and say thank you. It’s so nice to see them. The colors are absolutely stunning. I’m sorry he’s not here to know that people are taking an interest in them. He’d be so pleased."

In a second message, Pamela continued:

"It’s been my goal for the last 10 years to keep Rehberger’s name alive. I would be happy to give you any information you need. A friend and former student of my husband's collects all of Gustav’s magazine illustrations. And I still have boxes of tear sheets. It was Gustav’s habit to rip the page out of the magazine and toss out the magazine. So I have all these pages without dates and in some cases, no clue which magazine it came from. Hopefully, between the two of us, we can answer any questions you may have about his commercial work."

Not long thereafter, a thick envelope arrived filled with artwork and information about Rehberger. Pamela wrote that she had been spending many weekends at the New York Public Research Library "trying discover and document as much as I can about [Gustav's] career. I think you will be amazed at the scope of it."

And truly, I was. This week, with the benefit of Pamela Demme's help, we'll learn about the amazing career and accomplishments of an illustrator I've long admired, Gustav Rehberger.

You'll find all of today's images - plus a half dozen more - in my Gustav Rehberger Flickr set.

Sunday, October 28, 2007

Academy of the Sword

Zounds, a dog, a rat, a mouse, a cat, to scratch a man to death!
a braggart, a rogue, a villain, that fights by the book of arithmetic!
[Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet - III, i]

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628

girard thibault academie de l'espee 1628 circulus detail

girard thibault  academie de l'espee 1628 detail

girard thibault  academie de l'espee 1628 detail

girard thibault  academie de l'espee 1628 detail

girard thibault  academie de l'espee 1628 detail

girard thibault  academie de l'espee 1628 detail

Between the 16th and 18th centuries swordplay experienced an evolution in technology and technique. The heavier broadswords which were often just used as bludgeoning weapons began to give way to lighter and narrower breeds, particularly the rapier, whose sharp point was better able to pierce a combatant and whose extra length allowed for both a greater reach and better defensive positioning.

These new weapons also became fashionable sidearms for use in civilian combat, duels and for purely sporting purposes. The cumbersome tactics employed with the older weapons, which relied on brute strength brought to bear on the cutting edge of the blades, were superseded by more dexterous skills and speed, where the tip of the sword and the lunge were emphasised. Fencing techniques came to be regarded as more of a science during the 16th century and were naturally influenced by the advancements that occurred during the Renaissance.

The Spanish school of swordsmanship - 'La Destreza' ('high level skill') - emerged as the leading theoretical system in Europe in the 1550s with a book published by Geronimo Carranza in which geometry became a primary source for insight into combat techniques. His pupil, Luis Pacheco de Navarez, expanded the theory in his own work published at the end of the century.

Navarez was to train a Flemish swordsman (and doctor, poet, artist, architect and occultist), Girard Thibault (Thibault d'Anvers), who became a Master in the Spanish fencing methods in the first decade of the 17th century. His accumulated knowledge, together with the advancements to the mathematical theories he made himself, were collected and published in 1630 (although the book bears a 1628 date) in the most elaborate and lavishly illustrated fencing treatise ever produced. Thibault first acquired royal patents for his work in about 1620 so it essentially took him ten years to finally get his volume released, and it included more than forty sumptuous double-page folio engravings by some sixteen of the best artists of the day (eg. Crispin de Passe, Pieter Serwouters, Schelte and Boetius Bolswert, Saloman Savery, Jakob Goltzius, Peter Isselburg, Pieter de Jode &c).

A central tenet of the Thibault thesis on Spanish swordsmanship is the idea of a magic or mysterious (as it was to contemporary observers) or Thibault circle - essentially the diameter of an imaginary ring on the ground in which the stance, attack and defensive positioning all take place. The size of this circle corresponds to the height of the swordsman to the tip of his outstrectched finger (seen in a couple of the above images). All of the tactical movements are described by circular and linear concepts and a knowledge of geometry is fundamental to exploiting the strongest positions.
"The dogmatic Thibault d’Anvers, who only admits perfectly defined calculations in his theories, speaks, however, of the feeling of the sword, the feeling of iron, referring to the very current proprioceptive and kinaesthetic qualities, rather than to improvisation and adaptability. His theories are based on mechanical reflexes and stereotypes with a strictness, completely geometric, inscribed in a mysterious circle which, according to him, is the basis of the science of fencing."
Thibault's text was "founded squarely on the on traditions of spiritual philosophy and practice and formed one of several practical expressions of Renaissance Hermetic occultism". Mystical pythagorean geometry is said to have found its place during the Renaissance in the esoteric arts of occultism. In that light, it's perhaps unsurprising that Thibault quotes at length from 'De Occulta Philosophia Libri Tres' by German magician HC Agrippa. All this is just to say that, rather than being a secret discipline based on the wearing of puffy trousers, Destreza may well be the only esoteric western martial art.

The full title in english of 'Academie de l'Espee' is:
'Academy of the Sword. Wherein is demonstrated by mathematical rules on the foundation of a mysterious circle, the theory and practice of the true and heretofore unknown secrets of handling arms on foot and horseback'. But the horseback section was never completed - Thibault died prior to release of the book.

The Crab Nebula

The  Crab Nebula, Image Credit: NASA, Kris Davidson (U. Minn.), William P. Blair (JHU), Robert A. Fesen (Dartmouth), Alan Uomoto (JHU), Gordon M. MacAlpine (U. Mich.), and Richard B.C. Henry (U. Okla.)In the year 1054 A.D., Chinese astronomers were startled by the appearance of a new star that was so bright that it was visible in broad daylight for several weeks. Located about 6,500 light-years from Earth, the Crab Nebula is the remnant of a star that began its life with about 10 times the mass of our sun. Its life ended on July 4, 1054 when it exploded as a supernova. High Resolution Image (1.66 MB)
Resembling an abstract painting by Jackson Pollack, the image shows ragged shards of gas that are expanding away from the explosion site at over 3 million miles per hour. The core of the star has survived the explosion as a pulsar, a neutron star that spins on its axis 30 times a second. It heats its surroundings, creating the ghostly diffuse bluish-green glowing gas cloud in its vicinity. The colorful network of filaments is the material from the outer layers of the star that was expelled during the explosion. The various colors in the picture arise from different chemical elements in the expanding gas, including hydrogen (orange), nitrogen (red), sulfur (pink), and oxygen (green). The shades of color represent variations in the temperature and density of the gas, as well as changes in the elemental composition.

Image Credit: NASA, Kris Davidson (U. Minn.), William P. Blair (JHU), Robert A. Fesen (Dartmouth), Alan Uomoto (JHU), Gordon M. MacAlpine (U. Mich.), and Richard B.C. Henry (U. Okla.)

Photography: Photographs available from this web site (NASA IMAGE OF THE DAY GALLERY) are not protected by copyright unless noted. If not copyrighted, photographs may be reproduced and distributed without further permission from NASA.

If the NASA material is to be used for commercial purposes, especially including advertisements, it must not explicitly or implicitly convey NASA's endorsement of commercial goods or services.

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Saturday, October 27, 2007

Happy Halloween Banners

I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If This image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

Images generated free for any use by David Bonnell and Cameron Gregory, Script by Vidar, created with flamingtext

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Friday, October 26, 2007

Native American Heritage Geronimo

Native American Heritage Geronimo, Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, LC-USZ62-36613]Digital ID: cph 3a37017. Source: b&w film copy neg. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-36613 (b&w film copy neg.) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA Retrieve uncompressed archival TIFF version (1,392 kilobytes) Unedited Image

TITLE: Geronimo. CALL NUMBER: BIOG FILE - Geronimo [item] [P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-36613 (b&w film copy neg.) RIGHTS INFORMATION: No known restrictions on publication.
SUMMARY: Portrait, facing front, posed on one knee holding rifle. MEDIUM: 1 photographic print. CREATED/PUBLISHED: c1886. NOTES: Photo by A.F. Randall, Wilcox, A.T. This record contains unverified, old data from caption card.

Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (THIS IMAGE) are now in the public domain.

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3a37017. CONTROL #: 2004672097

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, LC-USZ62-36613]

MARC Record Line 540 - No known restrictions on publication.

Geronimo From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Geronimo (Chiricahua: Goyaałé, "one who yawns"; often spelled Goyathlay or Goyahkla in English) (June 16, 1829–February 17, 1909) was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who warred against the encroachment of the United States on his tribal lands and people for over 25 years.

Goyaałé (Geronimo) was born to the Bedonkohe band of the Apache, near Turkey Creek, a tributary of the Gila River in what is now the state of New Mexico, then part of Mexico, but which his family considered Bedonkohe land.

Geronimo's father, Tablishim, and mother, Juana, educated him according to Apache traditions. He married a woman from the Chiricauhua band of Apache; they had three children. On March 5, 1851, a company of 400 Sonoran soldiers led by Colonel Jose Maria Carrasco attacked Geronimo's camp outside Janos while the men were in town trading. Among those dead were Geronimo's wife, Alope, his children, and mother. His chief, Mangas Coloradas, sent him to Cochise's band for help in revenge against the Mexicans. It was the Mexicans who named him Geronimo. This appellation stemmed from a battle in which he repeatedly attacked Mexican soldiers with a knife, ignoring a deadly hail of bullets. In reference to the Mexicans' plea to Saint Jerome, the name stuck

The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. To counter the early Apache raids on Spanish settlements, presidios were established at Janos (1685) in Chihuahua and at Fronteras (1690) in northern Opata country. In 1835, Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps. Two years later Mangas Coloradas or Dasoda-hae (Red Sleeves) became principal chief and war leader and began a series of retaliatory raids against the Mexicans. Apache raids on Mexican villages were so numerous and brutal that no area was safe.

While Geronimo said he was never a chief, he was a military leader. As a Chiricahua Apache, this meant he was also a spiritual leader. He consistently urged raids and war upon many Mexican and later U.S. groups.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Geronimo

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Domino Mag Slideshow

The lovely Holly Becker of Decor8,
kindly included me & 14 other talented artists in a recent
Domino slideshow that highlights Etsy sellers :)
Thank you Holly!

Cosmo, Sept. '54: The unknows you don't know you know

In September of 1954, Cosmopolitan magazine AD, Robert C. Atherton conducted a daring experiment: ignoring his usual roster of well known and respected illustrators, he handed out every story assignment in that issue to a completely unknown artist.

The results were nothing short of spectacular.

This should have been the launching point of a half a dozen careers...but here's the really strange part: after completing their first ever high profile magazine illustration assignments, Karl Reap, Charles Kirkpatrick, Ed Robertson, Lloyd Viehman, Chuck Eubanks, and Otto Bender were never heard from again. What became of this talented group of unknowns... and why did they never again illustrate a story for a major national magazine?

Amazingly, I was able to unearth their stories:

Karl Reap began his career as an in-house layout man at various New York advertising agencies. His artwork was only used for presentation purposes at client meetings - then discarded. Reap had always wanted to do finished art so people would finally recognize his talents. Robert Atherton was married to Reap's cousin and the two men had met at many family functions over the years. When Atherton decided to undertake his bold experiment, Reap jumped at the chance to illustrate the first and longest of that issue's stories.

Karl Reap enjoyed seeing his work in print at last, but he found the time and attention one had to devote to creating finished art did not suit him. The roughness of his work here is a result of him struggling to meet the deadline after spending too much time on the initial painting. Frustrated, Reap returned to doing layout work and from then on only did finished paintings as gifts for family members in his spare time.

Charles Kirkpatrick, the oldest of that issue's unknowns, had actually painted many illustrations anonymously in the 20's and 30's for the pulp magazines in England. He had semi-retired but still taught part-time at a prestigous art college in London. Atherton had studied under Kirkpatrick and thought it might be fun to call on his old teacher for one of the stories. The older man agreed... and we might have seen more work by him in future issues of Cosmo but, sadly, he passed away the following month. His former student's assignment would be the last painting of Charles Kirkpatrick's career.

Ed Robertson was working as an art director when Atherton approached him to illustrate "Gift for Sylvia". The two men knew each other from attending meetings at the New York Art Directors Club. Atherton had always wondered why Robertson had never made use of his illustrative talents, and offered him the chance to do one of the longer, multiple image stories.

As you can see from the results, Robertson was tremendously accomplished and could easily have switched careers to full time illustration. But shortly after completing his first ever story assignment, Robertson was offered the Creative Director position with a large Wisconsin ad agency.

Robertson left New York shortly thereafter and we must assume he spent the rest of his days happily immersed in creating advertising for the cheese industry.

Lloyd Viehman was actually an animator at MGM Studios in Burbank, California. Viehman was in New York on a leave of absence from work, caring for his ailing mother. While in town he heard through the grapevine that Robert Atherton was looking for talented unknowns to fill an issue of Cosmopolitan, and thought it might be a good opportunity to earn a little extra money while away from the West Coast.

His art for "My Enemy... My Love" certainly reflects his animation background, and its been said that the illustration was actually done on a sheet of acetate, mimicking the process used to creat animation 'cels'.

After Viehman's mother passed away the artist returned to California where he got in on the ground floor of the Hanna Barbera studios. He eventually became a director with that company, and is credited with lending his nickname, "Auggie" to the HB character "Auggie Doggy".

Chuck Eubanks, the artist on "The Swan", was one of Cosmo's best fashion illustrators. He took up Atherton's challenge to produce a story illustration, and the results are very pleasing indeed. But for reasons of his own, he returned to doing strictly fashion illustrations after this one foray into story art.

And finally, Otto Bender, who was actually a comic book artist - though he had never made a name for himself in that area of the industry. Bender worked for many years as a "ghost", doing the artwork for other artists who then signed their names to the artwork. Years later, when asked why he had chosen to spend his entire career in anonymity, the now elderly Bender replied that he had been embarrassed to be working in the "illegitimate" field of comics. "I didn't want people to know," said Bender when he appeared on a panel at the 1997 San Diego Comics Convention. "Those Senate hearings and that Dr. Wertham... they made me feel ashamed of the work."

Bender said that this one piece he did for Cosmo was a highlight in his career and he proudly put his signature to it, but he found it easier to get assignments in the comic book field. "Little could I have imagined then," said Bender, "that the great American illustrators would fade into obscurity and that comic book artists would one day be treated like royalty!"

If you've been wondering how I managed to find out so much about such an obscure group of illustrators, its because I made it all up.