Tuesday, November 30, 2010

ART THAT OUTCLASSES ITS SUBJECT MATTER

The 1980 movie Popeye was widely panned by critics. (One of the more favorable reviews called it a "mess of a movie" and "unintelligible.") It quickly disappeared from the theaters but not before MAD Magazine artist Mort Drucker dutifully captured it in a parody.



Drucker drew many important subjects for MAD, but he was also assigned to depict much of the raw sewage of American popular culture: third rate television shows that quickly imploded and movies that should never have been made. (Remember Alf? Who's The Boss? The Flying Nun?) By the time he drew Popeye, Drucker had been slogging through such subject matter for almost 25 years.

Yet, he drew these pictures with the same loving care others might reserve for the immortal themes on ancient Greek vases. Look at Drucker's beautiful work for Popeye:









I am awed by Drucker's talent, but separately awed by his dedication and consistently high standards over many decades.

Notice in the panel below how Drucker continued his drawing beyond the panel borders. The man couldn't stop himself.



Click on these drawings for close ups of a master at work.



Look how convincingly he conveys great mass in his figures:



Notice how adroitly he controls the architecture of this complex scene, and still has the capacity left over to add a gratuitous fish climbing the stairs:



While Drucker was drawing for MAD, the other two great caricaturists of the latter half of the 20th century, David Levine and Al Hirschfeld were drawing more highbrow subjects-- great authors and composers-- for prestigious periodicals such as the New York Review of Books and the New York Times.

Many think that art is enhanced by association with prestigious subjects. They presume that a drawing of Dostoevsky must somehow be superior to a drawing of Joan Collins, or that a caricature in the New York Review of Books must be more culturally significant than a caricature in MAD. One look at Drucker's glorious drawings from Popeye tells you it ain't so. As far as I am concerned, Drucker is the best all around artist of the bunch, hands down. His prolific career is an astounding artistic accomplishment and I think more of him, rather than less, for achieving it with subject matter such as Popeye.

Seeing Santa Claus

Seeing Santa ClausTitle: Seeing Santa Claus. Date Created/Published: 1876. Medium: 1 print : wood engraving by Thomas Nast. Summary: Santa starting down chimney 2 children peek from skylight. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-52568 (b&w film copy neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: Illus. in AP2.H32 1876 (Case Y) [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.
Notes:

* Illus. in: Harper's Weekly, 1876 Jan. 1, p. 17.
* No file print.
* This record contains unverified, old data from caption card.
* Caption card tracings: PI Works; Santa Claus; Shelf.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF . Works published before 1923 (in this case 1876) are now in the public domain. and also in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case (Thomas Nast September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) and that most commonly run for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31 of that year.

Illustration from an Earlier Age, Part 2

In his introduction to Black & White ImageS - Fifth Special Collection, Editor/Publisher Jim Vadeboncoeur writes, "The field of black and white art from my focused time period, 1870 to 1922 is, indeed, an embarrassment of riches. It often seems to be an unending, unfathomable sea of images that only gets wider and deeper the further I venture from my familiar Anglo Saxon shores."

Benda01

"The more I explore," writes Jim, "the more I realize how much great art we've lost. As culture, as society, as humans..."

Flagg02.detail01

"... we've simply forgotten most of our artistic heritage."

Flagg02

Jim has been a Today's Inspiration list members for quite some time now and he and I corresponded on the subject of the era he is so passionate about. In one note he explained to me, "I can trace MY fascination with the era to folks like Al Williamson and Roy Krenkel, Leif, who very much influenced Wrightson, Jones, Kaluta and Smith. As I was reading the fanzines of the late 1960s, I would learn that Krenkel was a big fan of Franklin Booth or the Williamson went gaga over Joseph Clement Coll. I can remember cutting classes at college in 1968 to pore over the shelves of early 20th century novels to see if they had any illustrations - and thus discovering the work of Coll (on Talbot Mundy) and Cornwell (on Peter B. Kyne) and being fascinated by the modernity of their work. Of course I was comparing it to comic and fantasy art, not commercial illustration - where it was anything BUT modern."

Christy01

"I grew up in the 50s looking at Colliers and the SEP. I NEVER was drawn (no pun intended) into the art on the stories. I knew it was there, but it wasn't until I discovered comic books that illustration "called" to me. Then Frazetta paperback covers woke my latent appreciation and I began following the path backwards - quite literally skipping over the illustration of the 60s and 50s and most of the 40s as I went looking for the people who influenced my favorites. I wanted to know WHO Coll was and WHAT Williamson got from him. I wanted to understand why Wrightson wasn't drawing like Frazetta anymore but was channeling Franklin Booth. What prompted this "skipping" of a generation or two in artistic influence and WHY were these "antique" styles still relevant (and effective) in the 1970s?"

Sullivant01

"It was only partially an intellectual quest. It was also that the echoes of those old styles were resonating with me AND with a generation of comic book artists and fans. When I found the source material, I understood. These guys were defining a genre (or three) and there was an exuberance there that never happened again. Sure, lots of GREAT illustration happened after the 1920s, but it was all derivative of (or in reaction to) the work of this seminal era."

Pyle01.detail01

"The fine art/anti-photography movement was a major turning point and saved the craft of illustration from the dustbin, but it became, to this poor observer, something ELSE. Something good and often great, but it's always struck me as a somehow different sort of critter. The explosion of styles and craft that occurred from 1880 to 1920 was a one-time thing and was (and will be) never repeated."

Pyle01

Since that note Jim's been kind enough to send me his latest issues of ImageS and so my education - and appreciation - grows. Its from the most recent Black & White ImageS that I scanned today's art samples. It truly is stunning work, and this is only a tiny sampling of what every issue of ImageS contains.

If you'd like to learn more about Jim's publications, go to The Vadeboncoeur Collection of ImageS

Any many thanks, Jim!

Monday, November 29, 2010

December Desktop Calendar!

December wallpaper calendar
From me to you with love :)
Click on the image above to make it larger and download from there. Enjoy!

Fish Crow from "The Birds of America"

Fish Crow from The Birds of AmericaThe Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus) is a typical crow in appearance associated with wetland habitats.

The Fish Crow is similar to the American Crow but is smaller and has a smoother plumage. The upperparts have a blue or blue-green sheen, while the underparts have a more greenish tint to the black. The eyes are dark brown. The differences are often only apparent between the two when side by side or, when heard calling.
The call of the Fish Crow has been described as a nasal "ark-ark-ark" or a "waw-waw". The two species are often distinguish in areas where their range overlaps with the mnemonic aid "Just ask him if he is an American Crow. If he says "no", he is a Fish Crow." referring to the most common call of the American Crow being a distinct "caw caw", while that of the Fish Crow is a nasal "nyuh unh"

The species occurs on the eastern seaboard of the United States from the state of Rhode Island south to Key West, and west along the northern coastline of the Gulf of Mexico

Fish Crow from "The Birds of America" by John James Audubon, containing paintings and scientific descriptions of a wide variety of birds of the United States. first published as a series of sections between 1827 and 1838, it consists of hand-colored, life-size prints.

Often regarded as the greatest picture book ever produced. A copy sold at Christie's in March of 2000 for $8,802,500, which is still a world record for any printed book.

All 435 of John James Audubon's watercolors for Birds of America are at the New York Historical Society. There are 119 complete copies of the Double Elephant Folio in existence today.This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF . Works published before 1923 (in this case 1827 to 1838.) are now in the public domain. and also in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case (John James Audubon April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) and that most commonly run for a period of 50 to 70 years from that date.

Attribution: John James Audubon [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Fish Crow From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Glow

Glow Bowls by Diana Fayt
Manolo helped me hang the Glow Bowls I bought from Diana Fayt's shop recently.
Love how they look against the concrete wall, specially at night with the tea lights lit.
Visit Diana's shop by clicking here.

Illustration from an Earlier Age

I've got to admit, my interest in illustration doesn't really extend to the decades before WWII. I mean, I find the art of the late 19th and early 20th centuries academically interesting, but I'm not really drawn to it (if you'll pardon the pun) in the same way that I am to the post-war era. But I know many of you are.

One such person is TI list member Joseph Procopio, the founder & co-publisher of Picture This Press/Lost Art Books. Joe asked me to make readers aware of three books his company has published; The Lost Art of E.T. Reed—Prehistoric Peeps...

Reed01

... The Lost Art of Zim—Cartoons and Caricatures...

Zim01

... and The Lost Art of Frederick Richardson

Richardson01

Of the three, Richardson's work is the most intriguing to me. I was astounded to read on Joe's website that the artist created these sorts of pieces for publication in the Chicago Daily News in the 1890s. Amazing!

Richardson02.detail01

In an interview Joe did with washingtoncitypaper.com he explained that his intentions are "to preserve this cultural heritage by re-introducing these artists to new generations of working artists, historians, and admirers of things beautiful." That's certainly evident in these examples.

Richardson02

Personally, I'll be looking forward to one of Joe's future efforts: The Lost Art of the Racy & Risqué, which will include pieces by Russell Patterson, Frank Godwin, James Montgomery Flagg, Dean Cornwell and many others. That volume will be coming out in a few months, April being the goal, so perhaps we'll get to preview it at a later date.

For anyone still looking for a Christmas gift for the turn-of-the-century-illustration aficionado in their life, Joe's books may be the perfect thing.

Visit Joe's website for details.

* There are several other publishers of late 19th/early 20th century illustration who are members of Today's Inspiration. This week we'll look at some of those publishers and the artists from that era whose work they publish.

Sunday, November 28, 2010

American Flamingo from "The Birds of America"

American Flamingo from The Birds of AmericaAmerican Flamingo from "The Birds of America" by John James Audubon, containing paintings and scientific descriptions of a wide variety of birds of the United States. first published as a series of sections between 1827 and 1838, it consists of hand-colored, life-size prints.

Often regarded as the greatest picture book ever produced. A copy sold at Christie's in March of 2000 for $8,802,500, which is still a world record for any printed book.

All 435 of John James Audubon's watercolors for Birds of America are at the New York Historical Society. There are 119 complete copies of the Double Elephant Folio in existence today.
This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF . Works published before 1923 (in this case 1827 to 1838.) are now in the public domain. and also in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case (John James Audubon April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) and that most commonly run for a period of 50 to 70 years from that date.

Saturday, November 27, 2010

Wild Turkey from "The Birds of America"

Wild Turkey The Birds of AmericaWild Turkey from "The Birds of America" by John James Audubon, containing paintings and scientific descriptions of a wide variety of birds of the United States. first published as a series of sections between 1827 and 1838, it consists of hand-colored, life-size prints.

Often regarded as the greatest picture book ever produced. A copy sold at Christie's in March of 2000 for $8,802,500, which is still a world record for any printed book.

All 435 of John James Audubon's watercolors for Birds of America are at the New York Historical Society. There are 119 complete copies of the Double Elephant Folio in existence today.
This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF . Works published before 1923 (in this case 1827 to 1838.) are now in the public domain. and also in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case (John James Audubon April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) and that most commonly run for a period of 50 to 70 years from that date.

Celery Stamp

Wrapped
This is a fun way to play with your food and make beautiful
custom wrapping paper for Christmas.
Celery stamped wrapping paper.
I made the little white tag with DAS clay that air dries overnight. Nice & simple.
Celery stamped wrapping paper
I ♥ celery salad and the cut hearts make great stamps.
I used a white ink pad and stamped the rosette onto recycled brown paper.
Celery flowers
Digital collage using my celery hearts & clip art :)

Friday, November 26, 2010

Kwanzaa Table

Kwanzaa TableKwanzaa is a week long African American holiday observed from December 26 through January 1, which focuses on the traditional African values of family, community responsibility, commerce and self improvement.
The name Kwanzaa is derived from the phrase, "matunda ya kwana" which means, "first fruits" in Swahili.

Ownership: Information created or owned by the NPS and presented on this website, unless otherwise indicated, is considered in the public domain. It may be distributed or copied as permitted by applicable law.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Seeing Red

Kitchen
TV Room
A little bit of red around the house.
-I made that watermelon boat painting for Manolo ten years ago.
He ♥ watermelons. You can see the one he's eating in the kitchen counter.
-The white enamel pail keeps all of Turbo's toys and blankets.
-The red enamel cabinet keeps my boy's Wii Games and DVDs.

Marbled Paper Designs

Marbled paper refers to a variety of decorative appearances that resemble the vein-like texture of marble. The technique of marbling entails floating colours on a liquid and mixing them by chemical and physical means to achieve a pattern. A sheet of paper is placed on the pattern and is then removed, essentially forming a monotype print. It's a complex process involving delicate interactions and manipulations of buoyancy, surface tension, capillarity and viscosity, with even the ambient temperature and humidity affecting the outcome.
"Until after the middle of the nineteenth century, when the development of mechanized bookbinding methods first diminished and afterward virtually did away with the need for their services, hand bookbinders utilized marbled paper and the marbler's craft to embellish many of the books that were bound during the previous several centuries. Marbled papers were employed outside the book trade as well to adorn a great many products of everyday use.

They served, for example, as wall coverings; as linings for the interiors of trunks, boxes, wallets, musical instrument cases and other containers; for covering boxes and other receptacles; as ornamentation in the panels of cabinets, furniture, and even harpsichords; as wrappings for toys, drug powders, and other consumer goods; for enclosing blank books used for writing, and for other stationary purposes; and as shelf papers for lining cupboards and cabinets and for many home-decorating purposes.

Despite their prior popularity and extensive employment, marbled papers and the marbler's craft have remained the most obscure, and least investigated and understood, of all aspects of book arts. [..] For about two and a half centuries after its introduction into Europe about the year 1600, marbling was one of the chief means available for producing the colored papers used in bookbinding and other decorative work. It performed a similarly important role in the day-to-day life of the Near East, where the art was brought to perfection even earlier and used in conjunction with Islamic bookbinding, calligraphy, iconography, fine arts, and even administrative uses. In both the East and the West, large numbers and many generations of people spent their working lives in the production of marbled papers needed for these various purposes."

From the introduction to: 'Marbled Paper: Its History, Techniques, and Patterns' 1990 by Richard J Wolfe, widely regarded as the leading authority on marbling. Wolfe is mentioned as a reference in the notes below; paraphrased from the source UW site.

Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Antique straight pattern (36)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, antique straight pattern

Historically Wolfe suggests that the Antique straight is a pattern seen at least as early as the 17th century. This decorative arrangement is created by first completing a feather pattern. Then, a shower of fine (usually white) colour dots would be sprinkled over the entire bath.

Collection Notes [relates to all of the images below]: The flat sample from which this photo was scanned is a salvaged endsheet. There is no record of the original item from which these endsheets were taken, so the creation date is a best estimate, using Wolfe as a guide.




Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Turkish pattern (1)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Turkish pattern

Historically, this is the oldest of Western marbled patterns and dates back to as early as the middle part of the 15th century. Because this is the earliest (and simplest) example, it provides a base or jump off point for a large number of other patterns.

The pattern is created when one or more colours are thrown onto the surface of the bath using a marbling brush. The first colours thrown tend to constrict as other follow and can become the 'vein' colours for the latter thrown inks.



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Turkish on Stormont pattern  (3)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Turkish on Stormont pattern

The stormont* pattern is a rare effect in which turpentine is added to the blue colour causing it to break up into a fine network of lacy or flakey spots.




Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Gloster pattern (24)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Gloster pattern

Gloster is similar to and often mistaken for a Stormont pattern. They both require a dispersant such as turpentine to cause their distinctive white (open) spots. The difference is that the Stormont pattern, overall, appears to be more like a Turkish pattern in that the ink has been mixed with the dispersant to cover the entire surface, whereas the Gloster looks more like a Zebra pattern where the dispersant has only been mixed with a single colour, making the spots distinctive from the other colours used.

The pattern is created by starting with a Turkish base, then a comb with one set of teeth is drawn across the bath twice vertically (or horizontally), once in either direction with the second pass halving the first. Then one or more colours of ink mixed with a dispersant are sprinkled onto the bath, causing those last spots to have open, very fine spots inside them.



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Spanish moiré on Turkish with gold vein pattern (7)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Spanish moiré on Turkish with gold vein pattern

The pattern is created by making a Turkish pattern where the first colour used is gold. As further colours are dropped to complete the Turkish pattern, the gold constricts into veins. Then a paper, which has been folded in half is laid onto the bath, moving slightly from side to side to create the curvilinear gradations typical of this pattern.



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Spanish moiré on Serpentine with gold vein pattern (8)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Spanish moiré on Serpentine with gold vein pattern

As above.



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Nonpareil pattern (13)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Nonpareil pattern

Nonpareil [Fr.] means ‘matchless' or ‘unrivalled.' This pattern is related to the Wide comb (Arch) pattern as well as the Old Dutch pattern. All are variations of one another and are often mistaken for each other. The major differences are very difficult to pinpoint, but seem to stem from the size of intervals the last comb's teeth are set in.

This pattern is created when the desired colours are dropped sequentially onto the bath using some sort of implement to regulate the drop sizes. According to Miura* a comb with one set of teeth set at intervals of 15-30mm is drawn through the bath horizontally, once in either direction with the second pass halving the first. Then another comb with teeth set at 2-3 mm is drawn once across the bath vertically (or horizontally).

*'The Art of Marbled Paper: Marbled Patterns and How to Make Them' by Einen Miura, 1988/1991.




Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Schrottel pattern (11)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Schrottel pattern

The pattern was created in Germany in the early part of the 18th century. It has many different spellings but Miura suggests in his spelling that the pattern's name is derived from the German word Schrot which means 'small shot' or 'small grain.'

The pattern is created by starting with a Turkish base. Then, a mixture is thrown onto the bath whose reaction with the previous colours causes the dark spots with white halos to appear, that are reminiscent in look to tiny stones. This mixture is made up of ox gall and oil. The primary colour for this example is black.




Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Italian pattern (19)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Italian pattern

This pattern was created in Italy near the end of the 18th century. Its name is likely based equally on it nation of origin and the fact that it so closely resembles the actual stone, Italian marble.

This pattern is created when, after however many colours desired are thrown onto the bath, a dispersant is sprinkled over the entire bath in fine dots. These tiny drops of dispersant cause the previously thrown colours to constrict into tiny veins. Miura suggests that the dispersant might be made up of a mixture of soap, spirits and ox gall and then sprinkled over the bath through fine wire mesh to maintain the size of the dispersant drops. These constricted veins cause the colours to appear as they would in marbled stone.



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Italian Overprinted on Turkish pattern (20)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Italian Overprinted on Turkish pattern

Normally, the Turkish pattern is created when one or more colours are thrown onto the surface of the bath using a marbling brush. The first colours thrown tend to constrict and become the 'vein' colours for the latter thrown inks. However, this particular sample has been printed with a lithographic process for both patterns as was popular towards the end of the 1800's.The primary colours for this sample are light brown, peach, and black.



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Spanish moiré on Turkish with Gold vein pattern (6)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Spanish moiré on Turkish with Gold vein pattern

The pattern is created by making a Turkish pattern where the first colour used is gold. As further colours are dropped to complete the Turkish pattern, the gold constricts into veins. Then a paper, which has been folded in half is laid onto the bath, moving slightly from side to side to create the curvilinear gradations typical of this pattern. [repeating description from up the page]



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Gold vein Overprinted on Turkish antiqued pattern (22)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Gold vein Overprinted on Turkish antiqued pattern

Though related in terms of end appearance, an 'overprint' is not the same process as 'Double marble' according to Miura. A double marble is created when a single paper has been through the marbling process twice where both patterns are on top of one another. An overprint is created when a paper, already marbled, is then printed on top of another pattern using a lithographic process.

This pattern is created by first completing a Turkish antiqued pattern ('antiqued' refers to any pattern where a last colour, usually white, is finely sprinkled over the entire bath). Then after that paper has been dried, the marbled side would be printed over with a Gold vein pattern (Italian pattern using metallic ink) using a lithographic process.



Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Gold vein Overprinted over Spanish moiré on Turkish pattern (23)
Vintage 19th c. marbled paper, Gold vein Overprinted over Spanish moiré on Turkish pattern

Similar to above, this pattern is created by first completing a Spanish moiré on Turkish pattern. Then after that paper has been dried, the marbled side would be printed over with a Gold vein pattern (Italian pattern using metallic ink) using a lithographic process.



The history of marbling is fairly obscure. It is thought that the decoration first appeared in Japan by at least the early 12th century, from a process known (still) as Suminagashi ('sumi' means ink and 'nagashi' means floating, thus 'a pattern formed by floating ink'). The craft may have arisen in China independently or was imported from Japan very early on in the piece. Certainly, the inference in all the references is that a marbling technique was first practised in Japan.

Perhaps a century later, marbling appeared in, or near, Afghanistan, becoming an art form of the Persian and Ottoman worlds, centred in Turkey. Again, the marbling process may have been imported from the far East via the Silk Road trade route or it arose independently. The distinct Turkish marbling technique is known as Ebru and even the origin of that word is contentious, connoting either cloud art or water surface in Farsi or a related regional dialect.

The Suminagashi and Ebru forms of marbling are simplistic and rudimentary in comparison to the diverse and technically precise art that emerged later in Europe. In this case it is known that the technique was transplanted from Turkey to France, Italy and Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries, where a much larger body of craftsmen developed the technique.

Incidentally, the first mention of the marbling technique in western literature was by Athanasius Kircher in his 1646 book, 'Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae'.


Thursday, November 25, 2010

Hello Kitty Balloon Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade

Hello Kitty Balloon Macy's Thanksgiving Day ParadeHello Kitty Balloon Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. west 72 street at Central Park west, New York City. November 25, 2010.

Hello Kitty is a character produced by the Japanese company Sanrio, designed by Yuko Shimizu. The character portrayed as a female white Japanese bobtail cat with a red bow.
The character's first appearance was on a vinyl coin purse, introduced in Japan in 1975 and the United States in 1976.

Image License: I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If This image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.